Islam

Category: Fiqh

Method of Salat al-Tasbeeh (English)

by Seeker

Sheikh Munawwar Ateeq Ridawi – The Fiqh of Oaths

by Seeker

Fiqh of Oaths

Printing Nāsikh (abrogative) and Mansūkh (annulled) āyats in different colours

by Seeker

Question:

What is the ruling on printing the Nāsikh (abrogative) and Mansūkh (annulled) āyats of the Holy Qur’ân in different colours?

[Dr Khalid Rida Chicago U.S.A.]

Answer:

It is permissible but care must be taken to the colours used and it must be explained properly so that the general Muslim public [awām] doesn’t lose esteem for the Nāsikh and Mansūkh āyats.

—–

From Fatāwa al-Bareilly Sharīf – Markazī Dar Ul-Iftā’ Bareilly

Qiyām

by Seeker

Definition:

According to Urdu lexicographers the term Qiyām is understood to mean: standing upright in salāh. The essential element of a valid Qiyām is to stand upright in such a way that if the hands are stretched they should not reach up to the knee. The perfect Qiyām would be standing totally straight.

The duration of Qiyām and Qirā’at are the same. If the category of Qirā’at belongs to Fardh, Wājib, or Sunnah then the same category applies to Qiyām.[1]

Above decree is for all rak’âhs except the first. In the first rak’âh, Takbīr-e Tahrīma is a constituent of a fardh component of Qiyām while ŜanāTa’awūz and Tasmīyah are considered as Sunnah components of Qiyām.

How must one stand in Qiyām?

In Qiyām, men should place their right hand over the left, below the umbilicus and encircle the right thumb over the left wrist and the remaining three fingers of the right hand should be placed on the dorsal aspect of the left wrist.[2]

Fardh element:

Qiyām is Fardh [obligatory] in all forms of salāh[3], aside from nawafil. If these salāhs are offered in a sitting position without a valid reason then the salāh will be rendered invalid.[4]

Sunnah element:

Imām Abū Hanīfa raĥimahullah has said that it is Sunnah to keep a four-finger space between both legs during Qiyām.[5]

It is also Sunnah to keep the body weight on either leg, one by one.[6]

Mustahab element:

It is mustahab [desirable] to keep eyesight at the place of Sajdah in Qiyām.[7]

Makruh element:

It is makrūh tanzīhī to oscillate [move back and forth] one’s body during Qiyām.[8]

It is makrūh tahreemī to do Qiyām on one leg, however if there is a valid reason then one may do so.[9]

Qiyām for sick and aged persons

If one is able to stand up even for a while, then it becomes obligatory to perform the Takbīr-e Tahrīmawhilst standing and then one may sit down and complete his salāh.[10]

It is very common today that if one is slightly weak, ill or aged then he often prays salāh in a sitting position from the beginning of the salāh. However the majority of people doing so are very capable of performing salāh in a standing position and doing so will not increase their illness or affect their ability to stand. Such individuals are generally found indulging in worldly affairs whilst standing; and they must be told that it is obligatory for them to offer salāh in a standing position.[11]

If a person is sick or weak but is able to stand with the support of a stick [asā], wall or servant then it is obligatory for him to offer salāh in a standing position with the support.[12]

If one is able to stand, but there is a definite/known risk of bursting abscess in doing Sajdah then, salāh may be offered in a sitting or standing position with sign [symbolic performance] of Sajdah.[13]

If one goes to the mosque for congregational salāh and is unable to stand up upright due to weakness, on the contrary if he prays the salāh at home and is able to stand thereafter, then, he should pray salāh at home. It is better if he prays in congregational salāh at home, otherwise he should offer it alone.[14]

If urine drips whilst in a standing position, but stops in a sitting position, then it is obligatory for one to offer salāh in a sitting position.[15]

Salāh in a sitting position

Supererogatory [nawafil] salāh can be offered in a sitting position even though one is able to stand. It is in a Ĥadīth that, salāh offered in a sitting position carries half the reward of a salāh offered in a standing position.[16] However, there will be no reduction of blessings if salāh is offered in a sitting position due to a valid reason. It is customary in today’s day and age to offer supererogatory salāh in a sitting position and many feel pleased in doing so, however this attitude is wrong. It is better to offer supererogatory salāh in a standing position and the blessings will be doubled in doing so. Thus, supererogatory salāh offered in a sitting position without a due reason is permissible but the blessings shall be halved to one performing in a standing position.[17]

The Beloved Prophet şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam offered salāh in a sitting position and said,

I am not similar to you; my blessing is the same whether I offer salāh in a sitting or standing position.

Hence, it is better to offer supererogatory salāh in a standing position with double the blessings and there is no harm if offered in a sitting position.[18]

While offering supererogatory salāh in a sitting position, rukū’ should be done in such a way that the forehead reaches nearer to the knee but buttocks should not be lifted. It is Makrūh-e Tanzīhī to lift the buttocks whilst performing rukū’.[19]

Salāh may be offered in a sitting position on a moving boat.[20] In a moving vehicle for e.g. train or bus where one may feel dizziness or a vehicle in which it is not practical to stand up, salāh may be offered in a sitting position. However the salāh performed should be repeated after the completion of journey.[21]

—–

[1] Imām al-Haskafī, Durr al-Mukhtār

Sadr as-Sharī’ā, Bahār-e Sharī’ā, vol. 1, Part 3, pp. 37. Mumtaz Academy, Lahore

[2] Ghunyah Sharh Munyah

Imām Aḥmad RiĎā al-Qādrī, al-Atāya Nabawīyyah Fil Fatāwah Ridhwīyyah, vol. 3, pp. 46

[3] Fardh, wit’r, Eid and Sunnah of Fajr salāh

[4] Imām al-Haskafī, Durr al-Mukhtār

Imām Ibn Abidīn Shāmī, Radd al-Muhtār

[5] Imām Aḥmad RiĎā al-Qādrī, al-Atāya Nabawīyyah Fil Fatāwah Ridhwīyyah, vol. 3, pp. 51

[6] Imām Aḥmad RiĎā al-Qādrī, al-Atāya Nabawīyyah Fil Fatāwah Ridhwīyyah, vol. 1, pp. 448

[7] Sadr as-Sharī’ā, Bahār-e Sharī’ā

[8] Sadr as-Sharī’ā, Bahār-e Sharī’ā, vol. 3, pp. 173

[9] Sadr as-Sharī’ā, Bahār-e Sharī’ā, vol. 1, Part 3, pp. 37. Mumtaz Academy, Lahore

[10] Ghunyah Sharh Munyah

Imām Aḥmad RiĎā al-Qādrī, al-Atāya Nabawīyyah Fil Fatāwah Ridhwīyyah, vol. 3, pp. 52

[11] Imām Aḥmad RiĎā al-Qādrī, al-Atāya Nabawīyyah Fil Fatāwah Ridhwīyyah, vol. 3, pp. 53 & 424

[12] Ghunyah Sharh Munyah

Imām Aḥmad RiĎā al-Qādrī, al-Atāya Nabawīyyah Fil Fatāwah Ridhwīyyah, vol. 3, pp. 53

Sadr as-Sharī’ā, Bahār-e Sharī’ā, vol. 1, Part 3, pp. 37. Mumtaz Academy, Lahore

[13] Sadr as-Sharī’ā, Bahār-e Sharī’ā, vol. 3, pp. 69

[14] Imām al-Haskafī, Durr al-Mukhtār

Imām Ibn Abidīn Shāmī, Radd al-Muhtār

Sadr as-Sharī’ā, Bahār-e Sharī’ā, vol. 1, Part 3, pp. 37. Mumtaz Academy, Lahore

[15] Imām al-Haskafī, Durr al-Mukhtār

Imām Ibn Abidīn Shāmī, Radd al-Muhtār

Sadr as-Sharī’ā, Bahār-e Sharī’ā, vol. 1, Part 3, pp. 37. Mumtaz Academy, Lahore

[16] The Beloved Prophet şallAllāhu álayhi wa sallam said,

Someone who prays sitting down has only half the reward of someone standing.

Recorded by Imām al-Bukhârī in as-Sahīh, Ĥadīth 1065 on the authority of ‘Imrān bin Husayn rađiyAllāhu ánhu.

[17] Imām al-Haskafī, Durr al-Mukhtār

Imām Ibn Abidīn Shāmī, Radd al-Muhtār

Sadr as-Sharī’ā, Bahār-e Sharī’ā

[18] Imām Aḥmad RiĎā al-Qādrī, al-Atāya Nabawīyyah Fil Fatāwah Ridhwīyyah, vol. 3, pp. 461

[19] Imām Aḥmad RiĎā al-Qādrī, al-Atāya Nabawīyyah Fil Fatāwah Ridhwīyyah, vol. 3, pp. 51 & 69

[20] Ghunyah Sharh Munyah

[21] Imām Aḥmad RiĎā al-Qādrī, al-Atāya Nabawīyyah Fil Fatāwah Ridhwīyyah, vol. 3, pp. 627

Back to Basics: Salah

by Seeker

In this first series of ‘Back to Basics’ we will cover the second pillar of Islam – Salah. Many of us read it without knowing the importance, the benefits and even the rulings of salah. So sit back and relax and increase your knowledge and understanding of salah.

Why pray?

The answer shouldn’t be ‘because my dad said so!’ After believing in the shahada (declaration of faith), the most important worship and also a pillar of Islam is salah. The beloved Prophet sallAllahu alayhi wa sallam said, “The link between a Muslim and disbelief, kufr, is his or her neglect of prayer.” [Muslim].

He sallAllahu alayhi wa sallam also said that, “Whoever takes care to regularly perform one’s fard prayers will have light, status, and success on the Day of Judgement. And whoever was neglectful will have no light, no status, and no success. Instead, one will be joined with Fir’aun, Haman, Qarun, and Ubayy bin Khalaf.” [Ahmad].

It is therefore of great importance that one prays salah, as neglecting it one suffers in this world and the hereafter.

The Prophet sallAllahu alayhi wa sallam said, “The first thing the servant is reckoned about on the Day of Resurrection of his works is his prayer. If it was sound, he attains ultimate success and salvation. If it was deficient, he lost and failed.

So just imagine yourself standing on the Day of Judgement, and seeing others being questioned about their salah. Can one use the excuse that one was working so they didn’t pray, or that they couldn’t be bothered even though Allah gave them a long life and intellect?! Abdullah bin Shaqiq narrates that the Companions raDiyAllahu anhum ajmayin knew nothing if neglected would lead to disbelief, except prayer. [Tirmidhi].

Based on the very strong implications of neglecting salah, a very famous scholar by the name of Ahmad ibn Hanbal came to conclusion that by neglecting even one salah a person becomes a disbeliever; kāfir. The majority of scholars however disagree with this opinion but it still outlines the importance of praying salah.

Benefits of Salah

You’re probably asking: ‘what’s in it for me?’ Some benefits of salah have already been mentioned but there are many more virtues and rewards.

  • If a person prays salah properly, then the salah addresses the person by saying to him “May Allah protect you as you have protected me.” Then the salah rises towards the heaven in a state of illumination and light. The gates of heaven are opened for it (so that it may enter and be accepted). [Tabarani]
  • The Prophet sallAllahu alayhi wa sallam said, “Each salah wipes out the forthcoming sins.” [Ahmad] (This is referring to the minor sins.)
  • The Prophet sallAllahu alayhi wa sallam said, “When a Muslim worshipper performs wudu and washes his face, then every sin that he incurred by what his eyes fell upon comes out from his face with the last drop of water. When he washes his hands, every sin that he incurred by way of his grasp comes out from his hands with the last drop of water. When he washes his feet, every sin that he incurred by way of his walking comes out from his feet with the last drop of water. Ultimately, he comes forth free of sin.” [Bukhari]
  • A person came to the Prophet sallAllahu alayhi wa sallam and said, “There is a certain person who spends the night in offering salah, but in the morning he steals.” The Prophet sallAllahu alayhi wa sallam said, “Certainly salah will soon prevent him from this act you are mentioning.” [Ahmad] (Meaning he will give up this sin.)
  • By praying in congregation, the reward is multiplied 27 times. [Bukhari]
  • Even the footsteps that one takes to walk towards the mosque have reward in them. [Muslim].

Who has to pray?

A person who is sane; not a lunatic, and has reached the age of puberty… so I’m afraid you can’t get out of it that easily!

Pre-conditions of Salah

Before starting salah, one must make sure that:

  • their body is pure; free from minor and major impurity. So one is not in need of a fard ghusl and has wudhu
  • their clothes are pure
  • the place where one is praying is pure
  • ones nakedness or awrah is covered. For women this is covering the entire body except for the hands, face and feet. For men this is from the navel to the knees (so no salah in your shorts), although it is makruh to uncover other parts unnecessarily.
  • you face the Qibla (the direction towards the Ka’bah)
  • intention is made for the salah (after the time has come in for that prayer). One should be careful in avoiding praying during haram and makruh times.

Times for Salah

Fajr – time starts when the whiteness spreads from the horizon and it becomes visible and bright (true dawn) and ends when a small portion of the sun appears.

Zuhr – time starts when the sun starts declining after zenith (midday) and ends when the shadow of an upright object becomes double in addition to its original shadow.

Asr – time starts when zuhr time ends and remains until sunset. However it is makruh to delay asr salah unnecessarily after the suns rays become yellow/orange (meaning when one is able to look at the sun without being dazzled).

Maghrib – time starts after sunset and remains until before the redness on the horizon disappears, although it is makruh to unnecessarily delay the salah until this time.

Isha – time starts when maghrib time ends and remains until fajr. However it is makruh to delay it after midnight. Witr salah is exempt from this rule as one can choose to pray it just before fajr time if they wish.

If the above sounds a wee bit gibberish then just follow your local mosque prayer timetable! In any case because of the hardship of calculating the times of the 5 daily prayers, one is advised to follow the timetable of their local mosque.

How many rak’ats for each prayer?

Before going into how many rakats one needs to pray, some terms need to be understood.

Fard and Witr – has to be prayed and cannot be missed out.

Sunnah Muakkadah – something which the Prophet sallAllahu alayhi wa sallam normally did. It is blameworthy to leave it out without excuse and sinful if left out persistently.

Sunnah Ghair Muakkadah – something which the Prophet sallAllahu alayhi wa sallam occasionally did. One is rewarded for doing it and not sinful for missing it out.

Nafl – optional prayer where one is rewarded for praying it and not sinful if left out.

Now that you know the nitty gritty, lets have a look at the rakats for each salah:

Fajr – 2 sunnah muakkadah, 2 fard

Zuhr – 4 sunnah muakkadah, 4 fard, 2 sunnah muakkadah, 2 nafl

Jummah – 4 sunnah muakkadah, 2 fard, 4 sunnah muakkadah, 2 sunnah ghair muakkadah, 2 nafl

Asr – 4 sunnah ghair muakkadah, 4 fard

Maghrib – 3 fard, 2 sunnah muakkadah, 2 nafl

Isha – 4 sunnah ghair muakkadah, 4 fard, 2 sunnah muakkadah, 2 nafl, 3 witr, 2 nafl

Fard acts of Salah

If any of the fard acts are left out then the salah will become invalid, regardless of whether it is done intentionally or unintentionally.

  1. Saying ‘Allahu Akbar’ after making intention for salah
  2. Standing up (if one is unable to stand up then one sits down, if they are unable to sit down then they lie down and pray)
  3. Recitation of verses from the Quran
  4. Making ruku (bowing down)
  5. Making both sajdahs (prostrating)
  6. Sitting down at the end of the salah for the duration of tashahhud

Wajib acts of Salah

If any of the wajib acts are left out unintentionally then by doing sajda sahw (prostration of forgetfulness) the salah will be valid. If however, wajib acts are left out intentionally then the salah will become invalid, regardless of whether one does sajda sahw or not.

  1. Reciting Surah Al-Fātiha
  2. Reciting some other surah after it
  3. Doing the fard acts in their specific places (e.g. doing ruku before doing sajdah)
  4. Doing Qawmah; standing up after ruku
  5. Doing Jalsah; sitting between the two sajdahs
  6. Sitting down after two rackets for the duration that one can read tashahhud
  7. Reciting tashahhud in both sitting postures (applies to salah with 3 or 4 rakats)
  8. Reciting Du’a Qunoot in witr salah
  9. Ending salah by saying salams
  10. Performing salah without rushing and with contentment (related to point no. 4 & 5)

Sunnah and Makruh acts of Salah

There are too many to list here so if one is interested they can find it in any good Hanafi fiqh text books, such as Nur-ul-Idah or Quduri.

What breaks the Salah?

Missing out a condition of salah or a fard act invalidates salah, these have already been listed so I will not mention them here. However there are many other acts which also invalidate salah and because they are too many to list, I will mention the most common ones.

  1. Speaking intentionally or unintentionally. This includes giving salam to someone, or replying to someone who sneezes by saying ‘Yarhamukallah’
  2. Looking at and reciting verses from the Quran
  3. Laughing out loud (this also breaks the wudu)
  4. Eating or drinking. The exception is that if someone had a food particle stuck between their teeth and they swallowed it, their salah would only break if it was bigger than a chickpea.
  5. Excessive movement
  6. Crying or moaning in pain (due to worldly reasons)

A general rule of Usūl

by Seeker

An excerpt from the Ḥanafī textbook, Mukhtasar al-Qudūrī of Abul Ikhlā’s Ḥasan ibn ‘Ammar ibn ‘Alī al Shurunbulālī al-Wafa’i [964-1069] a major Ḥanafī Imām and muḥaqqiq [verifier] explaining the ḥalāl [lawful] and ḥarām [unlawful] in Islam:

We should realize that the permissible things are much more than the prohibited. In fact, the preferred view among the scholars of Usūl is that the general rule (with a couple of exceptions: sexual intercourse and meat, as we mention later on) is that things are permissible, and that the prohibited things are those which are excepted from this general rule through explicit mention of prohibition in the Qur’ān or Ḥadīth.

[Allah] is Who has created for you all of that which is upon the earth. [Qur’ān, 2:29]

Say: Who has prohibited the adornment [created by] Allah which He has brought forth for His servants, and the wholesome things of sustenance? Say: They are for those who believe in this world, [and] exclusively [for them] on the Day of Resurrection. [Qur’ān 7:32]

…He has detailed to you what He has prohibited for you…. [Qur’ān, 6:119]

Excerpt from Shamā’il al-Baghawī

by Seeker

Imām Nawawī rahimahullah has stated:

There is a consensus [ijmā‘] of the ummah [after concluding Sūrah al-Fāteha] the worshipper should say āmīn. [Shamā’il al-Baghawī, pp. 448, urdu translation]

It is narrated from Abū Hurayrah radiyAllāhu ‘anhu that the beloved Messenger of Allah sall Allāhu ‘alayhi wa ālihi wa sahbihī wa sallam said,

When anyone amongst you says āmīn, and the angels in the sky also say āmīn, so, if anyone’s āmīn coincides with the angel’s then all his past sins are forgiven. [Narrated by Muslim, Book of Salāh]

Imām ‘Aynī comments that the other hadīth are either referring to the imam or muqtadī [one who follows the command of the imām], or  both [imām and muqtadi], however the wording in this narration also includes the munfarid [lone worshipper]. In conclusion, whether it be the imām, muqtadi or one who is praying on his own, all of them must say āmīn after reciting alHamd, it is a sunnah and a great source of blessing.

Four obligatory acts in ablution

by Seeker

The following four (4) acts are obligatory in ablution:

First obligation

Washing the entire face: that is from the top of the forehead to the bottom of the chin and from ear to ear. Water must flow over the entire skin area at least once. If the moustache or eyebrows have thick hair, it is obligatory only to wash the hair. If the hair is sparse (thin), the skin must also be washed. Similarly, if hair in the beard is not thick, the inner skin must be washed. The area around the lips which remains exposed in the natural state when the mouth is closed must also be washed.

Second obligation

Washing both hands, up to and including the elbows: Washing any body part means that at least two drops of water must have flowed over each and every spot of it (not leaving out any spot equal to the breadth of a hair). Simply wetting the body part or spreading water over it like oil, or the flowing of just drop is not classified as washing – and will not complete the ablution or bath. All types of ornaments which are tight to the skin must be removed and the skin below it washed. If nail polish has been applied, ablution or bath cannot be complete without removing it.

However, ablution or bath will be complete in cases where the thing remaining on the skin is such that it is continuously or sometimes required and to remove it causes a burden – whether such a thing is above or below the nails or on any other part of the body – or whether such a thing is hard and water does not reach the skin below it – such as dough on the hands of kneaders, paint on the hands of a painter, henna for women, ink for the writer, sand or mud for the labourer and kohl under the eyelids or ordinary dirt for the common man.

Third obligation

Masah (Stroking with wet hands) of one fourth of the head: Hands should be wet for performing theMasah whether due to water remaining from washing the hands, or by wetting them with fresh water. If the hands remain wet after Masah, it will not suffice for Masah of any other body part.

Fourth obligation

Washing both feet: It is necessary to wash both feet fully – i.e. all sides of toes, inner parts of the toes, top part of the toes, heels, soles and the entire ankles. If water does not reach between the toes naturally, it is necessary to do Khilāl, i.e. pass the little finger between them to make the water reach there.

The following acts are Sunnah in ablution

by Seeker

The following acts are Sunnah in ablution:

  • Making an intention (niyyah) for obeying Allah Almighty and for the gaining of reward.
  • Performing ablution while sitting in a clean place.
  • Reciting Bismillah at the beginning of ablution.
  • Washing both hands up to the wrists.
  • Brushing the teeth with Miswaak
  • Rinsing the mouth thrice with water from the hand.
  • Rinsing the nose thrice by inhaling water up to the nose bone.
  • Using the right hand for inhaling water into the nose.
  • Cleaning the nose with the little finger of the left hand.
  • Inserting fingers between the spaces in the fingers and toes (to make sure that water passes through it).
  • Running all fingers through the beard.
  • Performing Masah of the entire head.
  • Performing Masah of the ears.
  • Maintaining proper order of washing of the different body parts.
  • Washing each body part three times each that needs to be washed.
  • Washing the following body part before the previous one dries.

The water to be used

by Seeker

Water used for bathing or for ablution must be in its natural state – i.e. free from colour, smell and taste. Furthermore, it must be unused. If the body is free from impurities, the water once used for bathing or ablution still remains pure, but cannot be used again for bathing or ablution. Similarly if one is in need of ablution or bath, and he dips or touches the water with any unwashed (un-purified) part of his body (finger, nail, hand etc), it will render the water as used – and therefore not useful for ablution or bathing. Using such water for drinking or cooking is disliked (makrūh). However this water can be used for washing clothes.

In order to make used water capable of being used for bathing or ablution, add clean unused water in greater quantity to it – or simply pour more clean unused water in the utensil so that the utensil begins to overflow. This will make the entire water usable for bathing or ablution.

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